Nehru was born to a household of Kashmiri Brahmans, famous for his or her administrative aptitude and scholarship, who had migrated to Delhi early within the 18th century. He was a son of Motilal Nehru, a famend lawyer and chief of the Indian independence motion, who turned considered one of Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi’s outstanding associates. Jawaharlal was the eldest of 4 youngsters, two of whom have been women. A sister, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, later turned the primary lady president of the United Nations General Assembly.
Till the age of 16, Nehru was educated at residence by a collection of English governesses and tutors. Solely a kind of—a part-Irish, part-Belgian theosophist, Ferdinand Brooks—seems to have made any impression on him. Jawaharlal additionally had a venerable Indian tutor who taught him Hindi and Sanskrit. In 1905 he went to Harrow, a number one English faculty, the place he stayed for 2 years. Nehru’s educational profession was by no means excellent. From Harrow he went to Trinity School, Cambridge, the place he spent three years incomes an honours diploma in pure science. On leaving Cambridge he certified as a barrister after two years on the Interior Temple, London, the place in his personal phrases he handed his examinations “with neither glory nor ignominy.”
The seven years Nehru spent in England left him in a hazy half-world, at residence neither in England nor in India. Some years later he wrote, “I’ve grow to be a queer combination of East and West, misplaced in every single place, at residence nowhere.” He went again to India to find India. The contending pulls and pressures that his expertise overseas have been to exert on his character have been by no means utterly resolved.Get unique entry to content material from our 1768 First Version together with your subscription.Subscribe today
4 years after his return to India, in March 1916, Nehru married Kamala Kaul, who additionally got here from a Kashmiri household that had settled in Delhi. Their solely baby, Indira Priyadarshini, was born in 1917; she would later (underneath her married identify of Indira Gandhi) additionally serve (1966–77 and 1980–84) as prime minister of India. As well as, Indira’s son Rajiv Gandhi succeeded his mom as prime minister (1984–89).
On his return to India, Nehru at first had tried to calm down as a lawyer. Not like his father, nevertheless, he had solely a desultory curiosity in his career and didn’t relish both the apply of regulation or the corporate of legal professionals. For that point he may be described, like lots of his technology, as an instinctive nationalist who yearned for his nation’s freedom, however, like most of his contemporaries, he had not formulated any exact concepts on the way it might be achieved.
Nehru’s autobiography discloses his full of life curiosity in Indian politics through the time he was learning overseas. His letters to his father over the identical interval reveal their frequent curiosity in India’s freedom. However not till father and son met Mahatma Gandhi and have been persuaded to comply with in his political footsteps did both of them develop any particular concepts on how freedom was to be attained. The standard in Gandhi that impressed the 2 Nehrus was his insistence on motion. A mistaken, Gandhi argued, shouldn’t solely be condemned however be resisted. Earlier, Nehru and his father had been contemptuous of the run of up to date Indian politicians, whose nationalism, with just a few notable exceptions, consisted of interminable speeches and long-winded resolutions. Jawaharlal was additionally attracted by Gandhi’s insistence on combating towards British rule of India with out worry or hate.
Nehru met Gandhi for the primary time in 1916 on the annual assembly of the Indian National Congress (Congress Social gathering) in Lucknow. Gandhi was 20 years his senior. Neither appears to have made any initially sturdy impression on the opposite. Gandhi makes no point out of Nehru in an autobiography he dictated whereas imprisoned within the early 1920s. The omission is comprehensible, since Nehru’s function in Indian politics was secondary till he was elected president of the Congress Social gathering in 1929, when he presided over the historic session at Lahore (now in Pakistan) that proclaimed full independence as India’s political purpose. Till then the celebration’s goal had been dominion standing.
Nehru’s shut affiliation with the Congress Social gathering dates from 1919 within the fast aftermath of World War I. That interval noticed an early wave of nationalist exercise and governmental repression, which culminated within the Massacre of Amritsar in April 1919; in accordance with an official report, 379 individuals have been killed (although different estimates have been significantly increased), and a minimum of 1,200 have been wounded when the native British army commander ordered his troops to fireplace on a crowd of unarmed Indians assembled in an nearly utterly enclosed area within the metropolis.
When, late in 1921, the outstanding leaders and employees of the Congress Social gathering have been outlawed in some provinces, Nehru went to jail for the primary time. Over the subsequent 24 years he was to serve one other eight durations of detention, the final and longest ending in June 1945, after an imprisonment of just about three years. In all, Nehru spent greater than 9 years in jail. Characteristically, he described his phrases of incarceration as regular interludes in a lifetime of irregular political exercise.
His political apprenticeship with the Congress Social gathering lasted from 1919 to 1929. In 1923 he turned normal secretary of the celebration for 2 years, and he did so once more in 1927 for one more two years. His pursuits and duties took him on journeys over extensive areas of India, notably in his native United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh state), the place his first publicity to the overwhelming poverty and degradation of the peasantry had a profound affect on his fundamental concepts for fixing these important issues. Although vaguely inclined towards socialism, Nehru’s radicalism had set in no particular mildew. The watershed in his political and financial pondering was his tour of Europe and the Soviet Union throughout 1926–27. Nehru’s actual curiosity in Marxism and his socialist sample of thought stemmed from that tour, though it didn’t appreciably enhance his information of communist idea and apply. His subsequent sojourns in jail enabled him to check Marxism in additional depth. Taken with its concepts however repelled by a few of its strategies—such because the regimentation and the heresy hunts of the communists—he may by no means convey himself to just accept Karl Marx’s writings as revealed scripture. But from then on, the yardstick of his financial pondering remained Marxist, adjusted, the place crucial, to Indian circumstances.
- Indus Waters Treaty
- Salt March
- Delhi Pact
NOTABLE FAMILY MEMBERS
- Father Motilal Nehru
- Daughter Indira Gandhi
Battle For Indian Independence
After the Lahore session of 1929, Nehru emerged because the chief of the country’s intellectuals and youth. Gandhi had shrewdly elevated him to the presidency of the Congress Social gathering over the heads of a few of his seniors, hoping that Nehru would draw India’s youth—who at the moment have been gravitating towards excessive leftist causes—into the mainstream of the Congress motion. Gandhi additionally appropriately calculated that, with added accountability, Nehru himself can be inclined to maintain to the center means.